TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Lost Files
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:8
Column Tag:Forth Forum

"Recovering Lost Files"

By Jörg Langowski, Chemical Engineer, Fed. Rep. of Germany, MacTutor Editorial Board

Recovering lost Files - File Tags

Before we start the main topic of this month's column, let me make an addition to my article in the May issue (Vol1 #5). I have so far made no distinction between using MacForth 1.1 and 2.0 for any of the program examples given here. And it is true, the main difference between the two Forth versions that appears on the surface is that Forth 2.0 contains the word ADD.CONTROL, which you have to define for yourself in Forth 1.1 (see V1 #4).

One thing, however, does change between the two versions. The tokens of predefined words are not the same anymore. Therefore, the example that I gave in the May article (for which I happened to use Forth 2.0) does not work with Forth 1.1. In 1.1, the tokens for the two 'no-name' words are:

2C1A instead of 2C7C for the 'wrapping tab' function, and

2BF6 instead of 2C58 for the wraparound function.

This month's example will make use of the latter function, so watch which Forth version you are using when you try it out.

Forth on the Mac can be compared to a set of very powerful, very sharp tools. You can create beautiful things with it; you can also cut yourself pretty badly. Cutting yourself with Forth can show up in a variety of disguises: the Bomb (and you may even be able to Resume!), interesting geometric patterns on the screen, requiring you to push Reset, strange machine gun type noises from the speaker, or all of the above. Of course, the MacForth editor automatically backs up screens and protects you from many disasters, but I left out something from the list a disk drive running wild, erasing some of your last half day's hard work or even the directory.

The people who designed the Mac have provided a very clever 'safety net' for those types of crashes. The operating system not only maintains a directory of the disk which associates to each file the blocks it is written to, it keeps additional information with each physical block: which file it belongs to, what its position in this file is, what the attributes of that file are and when it was written. Therefore, in principle, you can reconstruct any file on the disk, even without the directory being intact, just by reading all the blocks on the disk and looking where they belong.

The information that is kept with the blocks is not much; otherwise too much disk space is lost. So you won't be able to keep track of file names this way, nor of file types or creators.

An update to Inside Macintosh

The extra bytes that go with each sector are called tags. Inside Macintosh documents that there are 12 tag bytes per block and that they contain the following data:

bytes     0 3      : file number (long word)
byte       4       : file attributes (byte)
byte       5       : seems to be unused
bytes     6 7      : sequence number of this block within the file
bytes     8 11    : date block was written

This table deviates a little from the one that was given in the File Manager section of Inside Macintosh (at least in the most current update that was available to me in late April, when I wrote this). Inside Macintosh puts the attributes byte at position 5 in the tags block, and says that bit 0 of byte 4 is set =1 when the file is locked, =0 otherwise. My experiments, using the example program (see below), could not confirm this. Byte 4 contains all the file attributes, including whether the fork is resource or data (bit 1 =1 or =0, resp.).

The File Tags information is not written to the file buffer that you pass to the OS routines in the file control block. Rather, after each read operation, the tags are stripped from the main part of the block and placed into a special position in memory, which is referred to by the system global TagData (=$2FA). You will find the 12 tag bytes starting at TagData+2; I was not able to figure out what is contained in TagData and TagData+1. Inside Macintosh claims that the last 4 tag bytes (the block modification date) are not put into memory here, but that the logical block number appears at TagData+10 to TagData+11. This could not be reconfirmed, either; any time you read a block from disk, you will find the modification date of that block at TagData +10.

Reading and writing tags

In which way do the tags influence file handling by the operating system? Not at all, as long as the directory is intact. You can not only read tags, but also by changing the memory block that contains them and writing the 512 byte buffer back to disk, modify the tags (and even give them nonsense values). This, as far as I was able to find out, does not change the behavior of the disk in any way. If you write a block on a disk back in place, with only its tags modified (saying e.g. that it belongs to a different or non-existent file), the file containing that block will still be useable.

I tried this on a copy of a MacWrite disk, changing a couple of block tags in the MacWrite as well as in the System and Finder files. The disk would still boot nicely afterwards, and also after booting with Option-Command pressed (thus reconstructing the Desktop file), nothing peculiar was seen. Therefore it seems that the block tags are really nothing but an additional safety measure to help you (or some utility routine) reconstruct a crashed disk.

This is basically what Inside Macintosh says, too. And it is also said that there would be a utility (to come) that will automatically repair a destroyed disk from the tag information. Alas, no such thing has ever crossed this editor's desk and it still seems to be one of the numerous vaporware items for the Mac. (If any of you who read this column know better, please correct me and also tell me where to get such a routine). So far, the little Forth program at the end will have to do.

Recovering lost files

This month's example program is an update of the disk editor published in V1#5. Since I made a couple of changes to different parts of the program, it is printed in full length again. For one thing, the block length was changed from 1024 to 512 bytes, since tags refer to logical blocks, not allocation blocks. The new features that have been added are words to extract tag information from the system globals area and print it formatted; furthermore, you can dump the whole disk block by block, showing the tags of the starting block of each new file. Since files are organized on the disk in contiguous blocks, the program notices the start of a new file by the change of the file number in the tag.

The strategy for reconstructing a crashed directory, then, will be the following: First, select the drive that contains your sick disk. Then do a 'Dump all Tags' and you will get a pretty good idea of the file structure on that disk. Note that the resource fork and the data fork of a file will have the same file number but different attributes bytes; in the data fork, bit 1 equals 0, while it is set to 1 in the resource fork.

The last item in the DiskEdit menu is RecoverFile. This will create an output file of type TEXT (you may want to use the other drive for it, prefixing the file name by the volume name). It then asks for the starting and ending block of the file to recover, assuming that you already know (from the dump) where your file is located on the bad disk. The first block is read and it is decided whether the file to write is a regular file or a resource file. Then the other blocks are read, one by one, and written to the recovery file.

This procedure will leave you with a 'plain vanilla' document as a recovered file. You won't be able to tell the file name, whether it was an application or really a document, nor what its signature or creator is. That is too bad, but can't be helped at least you got your file back. Good guessing helps a lot here. You can also resort to a number of utilities to help you guess. If you happen to have a copy of ResEdit, looking at the resources of a (suspected) application will in most cases show you what application it was (from dialog boxes, strings etc.). Or, if you do not have ResEdit, you can just simply try and launch the application by double-clicking the recovered file's icon with the Command and Option keys pressed. The bomb will soon tell you whether you were wrong or right.

A copy of MacForth 1.1 that was recovered in the way explained above worked without problems, a minor annoyance being that you could start it with Command-Option-double click only. This can be changed, too: Using a utility such as SetFile (available on many public domain disks, as far as I know), you can change the Type and Creator words of your file and set the Bundle bit. For MacForth, the file type will be APPL, and the creator is M4TH. With that little trick, your file has been recovered completely; it can be launched in the usual way if it is an application, and will show the correct icon. If you don't have SetFile or a similar thing, you may as well use the disk editor published here, together with the information about directory structure given in V1#5.

A Forth based object-oriented language - NEON

There is a new language coming out for the Mac: NEON by Kriya Systems from Chicago. It is too early to give a full review of this system, since at this time I have only a pre-release copy without complete documentation, but what I've seen so far looks rather impressive.

The people at Kriya have been unsatisfied with Forth for a variety of reasons, the main three points being the lack of standardized data structures like strings and arrays, lack of a 'local variable' feature (other than the stack), and bad readability due to proliferation of stack operations, i.e., lack of named formal parameters in procedure calls.

You may argue about those points; fact is, that Forth code remains rather cryptic to non-Forth programmers in many cases, and since one of the basic concepts of Forth is extensibility, it makes sense to define your own 'dialect' of Forth that does not have those (real or not) deficiencies.

The creators of NEON went one step further and built object-orientation into their dialect of Forth. That is, to each class of objects (i.e. data structures) you can define a list of methods by which to manipulate them. For instance, putting a value into an array is a completely different operation from putting it into a list, and in standard Forth you will have to define different words for both. In an object oriented language, you can simply 'tell' the object to put the value into a certain place, and the object will do whatever is appropriate. (True, CREATE DOES> has something of that flavor to it; for instance you can define arrays that do automatic range checking or that remember how many dimensions they have etc. Still, Forth itself is a long way from being an object oriented language.)

Let me just give you a quick example of the definition of classes and objects. This is the way a class definition in NEON looks like:

:CLASS className <SUPER superClass
 n <INDEXED

( local variable definitions)

:M Method1: ( Forth code...)
;M

:M Method2:  ( Forth code...)
;M

... etc. for other methods ...

;CLASS ( end definition)

The <SUPER tells what superclass this new class belongs to (like a handle being a 
special kind of pointer, an unsigned integer a special kind of integer etc.); the <INDEXED 
tells, for indexed variables, the length of one element. 

Word definitions in NEON may contain formal parameters and local variables:

:Word { fpar1 fpar2 \ var1 var2 var3 -- }

That way you can refer to stack parameters by name and have some local variables 
available that other routines do not know of.
Another feature that has been added is forward referencing, which also comes in handy 
at times. But that's all that I want to tell you about NEON so far. I do promise to write a 
more detailed description with more examples soon, when I have the final release with the 
manual.
International compatibility -- one more remark
Just let me add a last quick point to what I said about the keyboard problems in the 
last issue. Apple seems to have realized this problem; there is a program available now, 
Localizer, which will automatically configure your system for any of a variety of countries, 
so you can 'localize' a disk with e.g. a German System file on it to a US keyboard. Which 
is just what I needed.
Listing 1: Disk Editor, Version 2
( Disk Editor Rev. 2, © 1985 MacTutor by
 J. Langowski )
: disk.editor ;
18 field +fcb.name  22 field +fcb.drive  
24 field +fcb.vrefnum 32 field +fcb.buf  
36 field +fcb.request 40 field +fcb.actual
44 field +fcb.posmode
46 field +fcb.position
12 constant dsk.menu 512 constant blk.size
variable vol.fcb  variable vol.fnumber
variable hex.asc  variable drive#
variable tag.fold 9999 tag.fold !
create this.fcb 50 allot  
create vol.buffer blk.size allot
hex
   a002 os.trap read  a003 os.trap write
decimal

: open.vol this.fcb dup vol.fcb !
   dup +fcb.vrefnum -5 swap w!
   +fcb.drive drive# @ swap w! ;
: input 0 0 >in ! query 
           32 word convert drop ;
: input$  0 >in ! query 32 word ;
: text.normal 12 textsize 15 line.height
    plain textstyle ;
: text.tiny 9 textsize 9 line.height
    condensed textstyle ;
hex
: need.chars 2bf6 execute ;  
( Ver. 1.1; set to 2c58 for 2.0 )
decimal

: dump.fcb ." Header    :" 
  3 0 do dup i 4* + @ . ."  " loop cr
  ." completion:" dup 12 + @ . cr
  ." ioresult  :" dup 16 + w@ . cr
  ." filename  :" dup +fcb.name @ . cr
  ." drive     :" dup +fcb.drive w@ . cr
  ." refnum    :" dup +fcb.vrefnum w@ . cr
  ." buffer    :" dup +fcb.buf @ . cr
  ." request   :" dup +fcb.request @ . cr
  ." actual    :" dup +fcb.actual @ . cr
  ." posmode   :" dup +fcb.posmode w@ . cr
 ." offset    :" dup +fcb.position @ . cr ;

hex  2FA 2+ constant tag.data  
tag.data constant tag.fnumber
tag.data 4+ constant tag.attr  
tag.data 5+ constant tag.lock
tag.data 6+ constant tag.sequ  
tag.data 8+ constant tag.date
: s2date ?days -1 fmt.date$ type ;
: s2time ?seconds fmt.time$ type ;
                               decimal
: dump.tags text.normal decimal
   ." file number : " tag.fnumber @ 6 .r cr
   ." attributes  : $" tag.attr c@ 
                         hex 2 .r decimal
   ." , sequence #: " tag.sequ w@ 4 .r cr
   ." date written: " tag.date @ dup s2date
                         space s2time cr ;
: setup.fcb ( buffer\block#\fcb -- fcb )
  dup +fcb.posmode 1 swap w!
  dup +fcb.position rot blk.size * swap ! 
           ( byte pos on disk)
  dup +fcb.buf rot swap !  
           ( buffer address)
  dup +fcb.request blk.size swap ! 
           ( # of bytes to transfer) ;
: read.pb ( buffer\block#\fcb -- )
                        setup.fcb read ;
: read.disk ( block# -- ) 
       dup 30 need.chars ." #" . space
       vol.buffer swap vol.fcb @ read.pb ;
: write.pb ( buffer\block#\fcb -- )
                        setup.fcb write ;
: write.disk ( block# -- ) 
       dup 30 need.chars ." #" . space
       vol.buffer swap vol.fcb @ write.pb ;
: dump.32 ( start address -- )
  32 0 do dup i + c@ hex.asc @ if
    dup 16 < if ." 0" then . else
    dup 32 < if ." ." drop else emit then
              then loop ;
: dump.buffer ( buffer address -- )
  text.tiny cr
  blk.size 32 / 0 do dup i 32 * dup16 < if
 ." 00" else dup 256 <  if ." 0" then then
  dup . + dump.32 drop cr loop ;
: read.block text.normal
  ." Read block #: " input dup 0<
  if error" Negative Block #" then
  cr read.disk io-result @ ?dup 
    if cr ." OS error " . cr abort
    else ." block read" cr dump.tags then ;
: write.block text.normal
  ." Write block #: " input dup 0<
  if error" Negative Block #" then
  cr write.disk io-result @ ?dup
    if cr ." OS error " . cr abort
    else ." block written" cr then ;
: dump.block 
     hex vol.buffer dump.buffer decimal ;
: patch.block text.normal
  ." change byte #:" hex input decimal
     dup blk.size 1- > 
     if ." too large" cr abort then
     vol.buffer + ." to:" hex input decimal
     swap c! ;
: dump.all.tags text.tiny 11 line.height
  800 0 do i read.disk 
      tag.fnumber @ tag.fold @ = not
     if cr ." new file starts, block " 
        i 3 .r space decimal tag.fnumber @
        dup tag.fold ! 4 .r space hex ." $"
        tag.attr c@ 2 .r 2 spaces  decimal
     then   loop text.normal cr ;
: set.hex 1 hex.asc !
    6 -1 dsk.menu item.check     
    7  0 dsk.menu item.check ;
: set.ascii 0 hex.asc !
    6  0 dsk.menu item.check     
    7 -1 dsk.menu item.check ;
: drive.1  1 drive# !   open.vol
    12 -1 dsk.menu item.check   
    13  0 dsk.menu item.check ;
: drive.2  2 drive# !   open.vol
    12  0 dsk.menu item.check   
    13 -1 dsk.menu item.check ;
create fname$ 60 allot
  : recover.file text.normal decimal cr
   ." Write output to: " input$ 
   dup c@ 1+ fname$ swap cmove
   fname$ 5 assign  5 create.file
  ." Recover blocks#: " input 
  ."  thru " input cr 1+ swap dup read.disk
  tag.attr c@ 2 and if 
     ." recovering resource file, opening
     output" cr  5 open.rsrc  else 
     ." recovering regular file, opening
     output" cr  5 open    then
 do i read.disk vol.buffer blk.size 5
    write.text ?file.error
 loop     5 close 5 remove   cr
." File recovered, double-check before
 using." cr ;

: disk.menu     
0 " DiskEdit" dsk.menu new.menu
       " Read;Write;Dump;Change;-(;Hex ;
                        Ascii;-(;Show Tags"
       dsk.menu append.items
       " Dump All Tags;-(;Drive 1;
                    Drive 2;-(;RecoverFile"
  dsk.menu append.items     draw.menu.bar
  dsk.menu menu.selection: 0 hilite.menu
  case  1 of read.block endof   
        2 of write.block endof
        3 of dump.block endof   
        4 of patch.block endof
        6 of set.hex    endof   
        7 of set.ascii   endof
        9 of dump.tags  endof  
       10 of dump.all.tags endof
       12 of drive.1    endof  
       13 of drive.2     endof
       15 of recover.file endof endcase
  events on do.events abort ;
disk.menu set.hex drive.1
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Civilization VI 1.0.6 - Next iteration o...
Sid Meier’s Civilization VI is the next entry in the popular Civilization franchise. Originally created by legendary game designer Sid Meier, Civilization is a strategy game in which you attempt to... Read more
Civilization VI 1.0.6 - Next iteration o...
Sid Meier’s Civilization VI is the next entry in the popular Civilization franchise. Originally created by legendary game designer Sid Meier, Civilization is a strategy game in which you attempt to... Read more
djay Pro 2.0.1 - Transform your Mac into...
djay Pro provides a complete toolkit for performing DJs. Its unique modern interface is built around a sophisticated integration with iTunes and Spotify, giving you instant access to millions of... Read more
Microsoft OneNote 15.41 - Free digital n...
OneNote is your very own digital notebook. With OneNote, you can capture that flash of genius, that moment of inspiration, or that list of errands that's too important to forget. Whether you're at... Read more
TechTool Pro 9.6 - Hard drive and system...
TechTool Pro has long been one of the foremost utilities for keeping your Mac running smoothly and efficiently. With the release of version 9, it has become more proficient than ever. TechTool... Read more
Apple iOS 11.2.1 - The latest version of...
iOS 11 sets a new standard for what is already the world’s most advanced mobile operating system. It makes iPhone better than before. It makes iPad more capable than ever. And now it opens up both to... Read more
Things 3.3 - Elegant personal task manag...
Things is a task management solution that helps to organize your tasks in an elegant and intuitive way. Things combines powerful features with simplicity through the use of tags and its intelligent... Read more
RapidWeaver 7.5.5 - Create template-base...
RapidWeaver is a next-generation Web design application to help you easily create professional-looking Web sites in minutes. No knowledge of complex code is required, RapidWeaver will take care of... Read more
Adobe Animate CC 2018 18.0.1.115 - Anima...
Animate CC 2018 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous Flash Professional customer). Animate CC 2018 (was Flash CC) lets you... Read more
Postbox 5.0.22 - Powerful and flexible e...
Postbox is a new email application that helps you organize your work life and get stuff done. It has all the elegance and simplicity of Apple Mail, but with more power and flexibility to manage even... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Life Is Strange (Games)
Life Is Strange 1.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.1 (iTunes) Description: Life Is Strange is a five part episodic game that sets out to revolutionize story-based choice and consequence games by... | Read more »
Oddworld: New 'n' Tasty (Game...
Oddworld: New 'n' Tasty 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $7.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: ** PLEASE NOTE: Requires 3.6GB free space to install. Runs at variable resolutions based on device capabilities.... | Read more »
Gorogoa (Games)
Gorogoa 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Gorogoa is an elegant evolution of the puzzle genre, told through a beautifully hand-drawn story designed and illustrated by Jason... | Read more »
Why Guns of Boom will be big for mobile...
Earlier this week, Game Insight, the minds that brought you Guns of Boom, revealed plans for an esports mode in the popular FPS title, with big implications for the game's future. Guns of Boom has been quite popular for some time now, so it's... | Read more »
Rules of Survival guide - how to boost y...
It's not easy surviving in the "every-man-for-himself" world of Rules of Survival. You'll be facing off against many other players who might be more skilled than you, or are luckier than you. There are a lot of factors weighing against you. With... | Read more »
FEZ Pocket Edition (Games)
FEZ Pocket Edition 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Amazing Katamari Damacy guide - beginner...
Amazing Katamari Damacy brings the bizarro world of the original games to mobile and shifts them into an endless format that's just as addictive as the PlayStation entries. Your goal is still to roll as much random stuff as you possibly can, though... | Read more »
Portal Knights guide - crafting tips and...
In Portal Knights, you're only as strong as the items you have at your disposal. This sandbox adventure is all about crafting and building up the next big thing. Whether you're an avid explorer or collector, crafting will likely play a large part... | Read more »
The best deals on the App Store this wee...
A new week means new discounts on the App Store. This week's deals run the gamut of action-adventure titles, puzzle games, and one of the best narrative adventure series out there. If you're looking to fill out your mobile gaming library on a... | Read more »
What you need to know about Animal Cross...
We hope you've been hard at work on collecting all of those holiday items in Animal Crossing: Pocket Camp, because you're about to get a whole new list of fun things to do as the game receives its first big update sometime soon. There are a lot of... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Beats Holiday sale at B&H, headphones and...
B&H Photo has Beats by Dr. Dre headphones, earphones, and speakers on sale for up to $80 off MSRP as part of their Holiday sale. Expedited shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax to NY... Read more
Holiday sale: Apple resellers offer 2017 15″...
MacMall has 15″ MacBook Pros on sale for $220-$300 off MSRP, each including free shipping: – 15″ 2.8GHz MacBook Pro Space Gray (MPTR2LL/A): $2179, $220 off MSRP – 15″ 2.8GHz MacBook Pro Silver (... Read more
Holiday sale: Apple resellers offer 13″ MacBo...
B&H Photo has 13″ MacBook Pros on sale for up to $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax for NY & NJ residents only: – 13-inch 2.3GHz/128GB Space Gray MacBook Pro (... Read more
Apple Watch Series 2, Certified Refurbished,...
Apple has Certified Refurbished Apple Watch Nike+ Series 2s, 42mm Space Gray Aluminum Case with Anthracite/Black Nike Sport Bands, available for $249 (38mm) or $279 (42mm). The 38mm model was out of... Read more
Apple offers Certified Refurbished 2016 12″ R...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2016 12″ Retina MacBooks available starting at $949. Apple will include a standard one-year warranty with each MacBook, and shipping is free. The following... Read more
B&H drops price on 13″ 256GB MacBook Air...
B&H has the 13″ 1.8GHz/256GB Apple MacBook Air (MQD42LL/A) now on sale for $1079 including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only. Their price is $120 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price... Read more
Holiday sale: 9″ iPads starting at $299, take...
MacMall has 9″ WiFi iPads on sale for $30 off including free shipping: – 9″ 32GB WiFi iPad: $299 – 9″ 128GB WiFi iPad: $399 Read more
Green Monday deal: 15″ 2.8GHz MacBook Pro on...
B&H Photo has the 15″ 2.8GHz Space Gray MacBook Pro on sale for $250 off MSRP for today only as part of their Green Monday/Holiday sale. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax for NY... Read more
Green Monday sale: B&H offers 12″ Apple i...
B&H Photo has 12″ iPad Pros on sale for up to $150 off MSRP as part of their Green Monday/Holiday sale. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax in NY & NJ only: – 12″ 64GB WiFi iPad... Read more
Holiday deal: 21″ and 27″ Apple iMacs on sale...
MacMall has 2017 21″ and 27″ Apple iMacs on sale for up to $200 off MSRP. Shipping is free: – 21″ 2.3GHz iMac: $999 $100 off MSRP – 21″ 3.0GHz iMac: $1199 $100 off MSRP – 21″ 3.4GHz iMac: $1379 $120... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Apple (United...
# Apple Solutions Consultant Job Number: 113124408 Waterford, CT, Connecticut, United States Posted: 17-Oct-2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** Are you Read more
QA Automation Engineer, *Apple* Pay - Apple...
# QA Automation Engineer, Apple Pay Job Number: 113202642 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: 11-Dec-2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** At Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.